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Intranasal Spray Vaccine
Protection against Mannheimiosis
(Pneumonic Pasteurellosis)



Q1: Is STVac vaccine safe?

Yes, STVac vaccine is safe and effective based on results from few laboratory and field trials. STVac vaccine is an intranasal spray vaccine developed by Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and is effective in protecting goats and sheep against respiratory disease known as mannheimiosis (also known as pasteurellosis).

Q2: What are the ingredients in STVac vaccines?

STVac is a whole cell inactivated bacterial vaccine. STVac contains inactivated Mannheimia Heamolytica strain (>106cells/ml) and is formulated in formulation buffer, containing preservative and stabilizer.

Q3: Why should my goats and sheep get vaccinated against Mannheimiosis?

Mannheimiosis is a common respiratory disease in sheep and goats world-wide, leading to between 30% to 40% death of the population when left unvaccinated. Following vaccination, the rate of mortality caused by mannheimiosis could be reduced to an average of 10% and further reduce to 2% with STVac. Therefore, vaccinating goats and sheep could significantly increase the survival rate of animals and eventually, the income of farmers.


Q4: Can STVac vaccine provides protection against infection of different types of Mannheimia Haemolytica strains?

Yes. STVac vaccine is currently the only intranasal spray vaccine against mannheimiosis that is able to stimulate both local and systemic immunity. The vaccine provides cross protection against infection by Mannheimia haemolytica A2, A7 and A9 strains.

Q5: Is it harmful if STVac vaccine accidentally sprayed to human?

Veterinary vaccines are intended only for use in animals and are not tested for safety in humans. When accidentally sprayed to human, flush the contact area with plenty of water.

Q6: Does STVac vaccine have HALAL Certificate?

STVac vaccine does not possess a Halal certificate. However, it is important to note that STVac vaccine does not contain any animal extract, alcohol, or porcine ingredients, aligning with Halal principles and making it suitable for individuals seeking Halal-compliant products.


Q7: Where do the material and equipment for STVac production come from?

The material used for production of this vaccine is acquired from multiple sources with pharmaceutical compliant grade to ensure quality of the vaccine produced. The equipment in the production facility is qualified and certified to the current GMP standards.

Getting STVac Vaccine


Q8: How many doses of STVac vaccine should be given to the animals? Do the animals need booster?

STVac vaccine should be given with a dosage approximately 1ml for each animal (4 sprays of 0.25ml each spray). Booster doses are needed for animals receiving STVac vaccine for the first time and is given 2 weeks after the first vaccination. Subsequent doses are given once every 6 months (twice a year), preferably prior to the stressful seasons such as monsoon seasons in the tropics, and winter and summer in temperate countries.


Q9: If the animals didn’t get the second booster dose of STVac vaccine within the recommended time, what should be done?

The animals should get the booster dose as recommended. Failure to provide the booster would risk infection among some of the animals in the population. Therefore, animals should get the booster dose at the recommended interval.


Q10: How long does protection from Mannheimiosis disease last?

The protection lasted for 3 months to 4 months. To effectively protect goats and sheep against Mannheimiosis, vaccination should be done prior to the stressful conditions (e.g. monsoon, winter or summer season and prior to transportation).


Q11: How many goats or sheep can be vaccinated for 250 ml or 500 ml solution STVac vaccine?

One (1) ml of the vaccine is required for each goat and sheep per vaccination. Therefore, 250 ml bottle can be used for 250 animals, while the 500 ml bottle can be used for 500 animals.


Q12: If the dosage of the vaccination exceeds more than 1 dose, what will happen?

Exceeding the recommended dose is wasteful. However, from the safety and toxicity study, exceeding the dose limit will not cause any toxicity and adverse effect to the animals.


Q13: How long does the goat and sheep need to wait after getting STVac vaccine, before getting another STVac vaccine?

The animals can get vaccinated with other vaccine at any time after getting STVac vaccine. This is because the mechanism of STVac vaccine is different from other systemic vaccines and will not complicate the effectiveness of both vaccines.


Q14: If the animals already had Mannheimiosis and recovered, are they covered by natural immunity, or do they still need to get the STVac vaccine?

Animals recovered from Mannheimiosis develop natural immunity, but this lasts for a period of 6 months. Therefore, vaccination with STVac vaccine is required for the animals to keep on being protected from subsequent Mannheimiosis.


Q15: Can the animals get vaccinated against Mannheimiosis disease while currently sick with the disease?

The concept of vaccination is to prevent infection, and STVac is not intended for treatment of Mannheimiosis in infected animals. However, providing STVac vaccination to infected animals may help in fighting against the infection.


Q16: Do we need trained personal or veterinarian for the vaccination of the animals?

STVac is an intranasal spray vaccine that is easy to administer. Vaccination can be done by the farmers themselves, without the presence of trained personnel.


After Getting the Vaccine

Q17: Do the animals need to avoid close contact with the unvaccinated animals after they are vaccinated?

No restriction or isolation needed between vaccinated and unvaccinated animals.

Q18: What is the level of effectiveness of the STVac vaccine?

STVac vaccine reduces deaths by Mannheimiosis to 2% -5% compared to 30%-40% deaths among unvaccinated animals. Thus, STVac vaccine provides between 95% to 98% survival rate against Mannheimiosis.


Q19: How long does it take for the vaccine to become effective in vaccinated animals?

Based on the serum antibody level of the vaccinated animals, STVac vaccine is effective as early as 1 week after the initial vaccination, and following booster dose, the effectiveness lasted between 3 to 4 months.


Q20: What is the withdrawal period for the vaccination?

Withdrawal period is usually a concern for drugs and antibiotics. Since STVac vaccine is a biologic, there is no issue of withdrawal period.


Q21: What is the storage condition of the vaccine?

The vaccine can be stored at ambient temperature (25°C to 30°C) and is stable for a period of one year. Leftover of the vaccine must be stored in refrigerator, between 2°C to8°C and must be used within 2 weeks.

Image by Arno Vermote

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At Bio-Angle Vacs, we are dedicated to protecting animals from diseases.  Our vaccines are formulated to provide comprehensive protection, while minimizing any adverse effects.

Click here to learn more about how we can help protect your animals today.

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